Race and Racism in America: a Reading List | Duke Kunshan University

Race and Racism in America: a Reading List

Compiled by Selina Lai Henderson, Denise Simpson, and Jesse Olsavsky

*** This article was originally posted on Duke Kunshan Arts & Humanities Division WeChat. DKU Library is collecting the recommended resources, listing the resource link and call no. beneath the books’ titles and will update the information on this webpage.

The current protests against police violence in the US have brought to the forefront questions about the history of race and racism in America. But these protests are not new, nor are the questions they pose. From the days of slavery, to those of segregation, to the current era of highly racialized policing, militarization, and mass-incarceration, scholars, activists, and ordinary citizens, largely people of color, have long been protesting racism and writing about it. This “syllabus” is a list of essential works of literature and history, both classic and new, that will inform you of the long, dark histories of racism in America, the struggles to overturn it, and the causes of the current conflagrations over racism and policing shaking American society and politics.

TOP RECOMMENDATIONS

Keanga-Yamahtta Taylor, From #Black Lives Matter to Black Liberation (2016)

Resource @ DKU Library: https://find.library.duke.edu/catalog/DUKE009590306

The Black Lives Matter Movement did not begin in 2020, but in fact began 5 years earlier after police murdered Michael Brown in Ferguson, near St. Louis, Missouri. Nationwide protests erupted in 2015. The protests occurred, paradoxically, at a time when Americans had reelected an African American (Barack Obama) to the presidency and lauded themselves as a society that had moved beyond racial prejudice. This book is the most important piece on the history and significance of the Black Lives Matter Movement. It reflects on the politics of the moment and unmasks the hidden forms of racism that persisted in US history. The book critiques the idea that America is a “color blind” society that does not see race. It critiques the inequalities, violent policing, and forms of racial segregation prevailing in America and argues, hopefully, that the Black Lives Matter could inspire a wider movement against racial injustice and class inequality in America.

Michelle Alexander, The New Jim Crow: Mass Incarceration in the Age of Colorblindness (2010).

Call No. HV9950 .A437 2010

https://find.library.duke.edu/catalog/DUKE006679277

https://find.library.duke.edu/catalog/DUKE004283813

The USA contains 3% of the world’s population, but 25% of the world’s imprisoned. America has the largest imprisoned population on earth alongside the most heavily armed police forces. People of color, particularly African Americans, are incarcerated in disproportionately high numbers. Prison conditions can be rough and upon release many ex-prisoners will have extreme difficulty finding work. Thus, instead of deterring crime and reinforcing rehabilitation, whole communities in America are subject to conditions in which poverty, discrimination, and incarceration are nearly impossible to escape.  In The New Jim Crow, Michelle Alexander unveils the history and mechanisms behind this horrifying situation. It had roots in efforts to re-enslave African Americans, by imprisoning them, after the Civil War (1861-1863); it had roots in CIA support for drug traders, in Asia and Latin America, in the fight against Communism, which brought drugs and thus crime to American cities; it had roots in the “war on crime” in the 1980s, and the structural and conscious racism that kept minorities both poor and continually suspected of criminal activities. Alexander argues that this process of incarceration and marginalization is self-perpetuating and can only end with the abolition policing and prisons in their current forms.     

Edward Baptist, The Half Has Never Been Told: Slavery and the Making of American Capitalism (2016).

Call No. E441 .B337 2014

https://find.library.duke.edu/catalog/DUKE006148490

https://find.library.duke.edu/catalog/DUKE006146724

The history of racism in America begins with the mass transportation of 12 million Africans to work as slaves on the plantations of the Americas, producing sugar, tobacco, and by the 19th century, cotton. Few historians doubt this. However, there has been a longstanding debate on the significance of the enslavement of Africans to the development of capitalism in America and the West. Traditionally, most historians have seen slavery as a barrier to economic development. This book turns that view upside down. Capitalism matured with the “industrial revolution” in England, based largely upon the manufacturing of textiles made from cotton. Industrial capitalism was thus dependent upon the cheap production of cotton. The vast majority of that cotton was mass-produced by African slaves in America, who faced brutal conditions and were paid nothing. Besides underpinning England’s industrialization, slavery, the author argues, was the bedrock of the American economy. From 1820-1861, cotton was America’s largest export by far, and slavery accounted for more economically than all the factories, railroads, and other industries in America combined. Slavery had not been a barrier to American economic development; its barbarity and cruelty, according to the author, made America’s rise as the largest economy on earth possible.

Toni Morrison’s The Bluest Eye (Novel, 1970)

Call No. PS3563.O8749 B55 1993

https://find.library.duke.edu/catalog/DUKE001606718

is a powerful literary depiction of what it means be black and female growing up in a culture defined not only by systemic racism and sexism, but also by the pervasive engine of consumerism of whiteness. The novel tells the tragic tale of a young black girl, Pecola Breedlove, who is obsessed with blond hair and blue eyes; in fact, she wants to have the “bluest eye” so she could see the world anew which would in return see her as beautiful instead of black, and therefore, “ugly.” Set in 1941, Morrison’s work reminds us how the pressing issues of racial and gender oppression remain hauntingly familiar not only in 1970 (just after Martin Luther King, Jr.’s death and during the Civil Rights Movement when the novel was published), but also at the present time with the cumulation of events tied to Black Lives Matter.

In The Big Sea (Autobiography, 1940),

Call No. PS3515.U274 Z5 1993 c.1

https://find.library.duke.edu/catalog/DUKE008718297

https://find.library.duke.edu/catalog/DUKE004190386

Langston Hughes weaves together fascinating episodes of his life at home and abroad as he explores the question of US race and racism in a global context. The heartbreaking tales that he tells of his father’s hate for his own people because of the color of their skin, his shock at being called a “white man” in the coast of West Africa, and the adventures he experienced as a cook and a waiter in Paris, are among the many touching stories he depicts that give voice to the longstanding African American struggles for civil rights. The fateful decision that he made to quit his undergraduate studies at Columbia University would ultimately open a world of discoveries on a racial consciousness that defies national, geographical, and political boundaries of the color line.

FURTHER READINGS

Edmund S. Morgan, “Slavery and Freedom: The American Paradox,” The Journal of American History, 59, No. 1, (1972), 5-29.

https://www-jstor-org.proxy.lib.duke.edu/stable/pdf/1888384.pdf
 

Manning Marable, “A Brief History of Structural Racism,” in Great Wells of Democracy: The Meaning of Race in American Life (2002).

https://find.library.duke.edu/catalog/DUKE008733901
 

W.E.B. Dubois, Black Reconstruction (1935).

Call No. E668 .D83 2007

https://find.library.duke.edu/catalog/DUKE008717077

https://find.library.duke.edu/catalog/DUKE003863028
 

Angela Davis, Are Prison’s Obsolete? (2003).

https://find.library.duke.edu/catalog/DUKE009607222
 

George Frederickson, White Supremacy: A Comparative Study of American and South African History (1981).

https://find.library.duke.edu/catalog/DUKE004064720
 

George Jackson, Soledad Brother (1970).

https://find.library.duke.edu/catalog/DUKE005170259
 

Malcolm X, The Autobiography of Malcolm X (1964).

https://find.library.duke.edu/catalog/DUKE008733340
 

Nell Irvin Painter, The History of White People (2010).
 

Beverly Daniel Tatum, Why are All the Black Kids Sitting Together in the Cafeteria

https://find.library.duke.edu/catalog/DUKE008615658
 

Ibram Kendi, How to be an Antiracist  

https://find.library.duke.edu/catalog/DUKE009631233
 

Brit Bennett, The Vanishing Half  

https://find.library.duke.edu/catalog/DUKE009640017
 

Robin Deangelo, White Fragility and Why it’s so Hard for White People to Talk about Racism  

https://find.library.duke.edu/catalog/DUKE009281543
 

Andrea Richie, Invisible No More

https://find.library.duke.edu/catalog/DUKE008630612
 

Tanehisi Coates, Between the World and Me

Call No. E185.615. C6335 2015

https://find.library.duke.edu/catalog/DUKE006076097
 

Angie Thomas, The Hate You Give

Call No. PZ7.1.T4567 Hat 2017

https://find.library.duke.edu/catalog/DUKE007754443
 

Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie, Americanah

Call No. PR9387.9.A34354 A44 2014

https://find.library.duke.edu/catalog/DUKE006076097

https://find.library.duke.edu/catalog/DUKE007686548
 

Michael Eric Dyson. Tears We Cannot Stop
 

Michael Eric Dyson, The Black Presidency: Barack Obama and the Politics of Race in America  
 

Toni Morrison

Beloved (1987, novel)

Call No. PS3563.O8749 B4 2004

https://find.library.duke.edu/catalog/DUKE006562472

https://find.library.duke.edu/catalog/DUKE003915208

The Bluest Eye (1970, novel)

Call No. PS3563.O8749 B55 1993

https://find.library.duke.edu/catalog/DUKE001606718
 

Maya Angelou

And Still I Rise (1978, poetry)

Call No. PS3551.N464 A8 1978

https://find.library.duke.edu/catalog/DUKE000653960

All God’s Children Need Traveling Shoes (1986, autobiography essays)

Call No. PS3551.N464 Z463 1986

https://find.library.duke.edu/catalog/DUKE000300072
 

Alice Walker

The Color Purple (1982, novel)

Call No. PS3573.A425 C6 1982

https://find.library.duke.edu/catalog/DUKE007921465

https://find.library.duke.edu/catalog/DUKE008750142

In Love and Trouble: Stories of Black Women (1973, short stories)

Call No. PS3573.A425 I5 1973

https://find.library.duke.edu/catalog/DUKE000072644
 

James Baldwin

Notes of a Native Son (1955, novel)

Call No. E185.61 .B2 2012

https://find.library.duke.edu/catalog/DUKE008727778

https://find.library.duke.edu/catalog/DUKE005769557

If Beale Street Could Talk (1974, novel)

https://find.library.duke.edu/catalog/DUKE008673149
 

Ralph Ellison

Invisible Man (1952, novel)

Call No. PS3555.L625 I5 1994

https://find.library.duke.edu/catalog/DUKE002467873
 

Richard Wright

Native Son (1940, novel)

Call No. PS3545.R815 N25 2005

https://find.library.duke.edu/catalog/DUKE006621591
 

Langston Hughes

The Weary Blues (1926, poetry)

Call No. PS3515.U274 A6 2015

https://find.library.duke.edu/catalog/DUKE007932373

https://find.library.duke.edu/catalog/DUKE006602943

The Big Sea (1940, autobiography)

Call No. PS3515.U274 Z5 1993 c.1

https://find.library.duke.edu/catalog/DUKE008718297

https://find.library.duke.edu/catalog/DUKE004190386
 

Zora Neale Hurston

“Sweat” (1926, short story)

“How Does It Feel To Be Colored Me” (1928, short essay)